Undead Tactics: Skeletons, Zombies and Shadows

The premise of this blog is that evolved creatures know how to use the abilities they were born with. The interesting thing about undead creatures, in this context, is that they’re not evolved creatures—at least, not anymore. The transformation to undead status doesn’t entirely erase what a ghost or zombie was in its previous life, nor does it necessarily come with a set of survival rules that any and every undead creature will adopt. Undeath is a curse, and as such, it creates what I think of as compulsions. That is, whatever spell, influence or event caused a creature to rise from the dead also drives that creature to behave in ways that have nothing to do with its own self-preservation. In fact, since the creature has already experienced death, the concept of “survival” is essentially meaningless to that creature. Consequently, how badly an undead creature is injured has nothing to do with whether it will flee, and the tactics it uses will have less to do with how to effectively guarantee its continued existence and more to do with the particular compulsion that drives it.

Two types of undead that player characters will encounter often at low levels are skeletons and zombies. Both are (usually) former humanoids, raised from death through necromancy to act as minions without free will or personality. Their compulsion is obedience to the orders of their controller, which usually involves killing interlopers. When idle, a skeleton will revert to habitual behaviors from its former life (the Monster Manual offers, as an example, the skeleton of a former miner miming digging with a pick), while a zombie will just stand around. Both are literal in their interpretations of instructions and lack independent problem-solving ability, though skeletons have an easier time circumventing obvious obstacles. And both will fight until they’re destroyed, regardless of the amount or kind of damage they’ve taken or the strength of the opposition.

How a skeleton fights will depend on how it would have fought in its previous life. A former archer, for instance, will instinctively know to maintain a certain range from its targets (40 to 80 feet, if possible). A former duelist will occasionally use the Dodge action to avoid incoming blows from multiple targets or the Disengage action to relocate to more favorable ground. Most of the time, though, skeletons are former guards or other shlubs and will take a simple, direct approach to melee fighting: engage, swing sword, repeat. That being said, a skeleton ordered to guard a room, for instance, will break off combat with any opponent who leaves that room. It won’t pursue, and it may even forgo an opportunity attack against an opponent who’s obviously leaving the scene, because it’s accomplished what it was ordered to do. Skeletons are vulnerable to bludgeoning damage, but they’re not independently reflective enough to avoid a PC with a mace. Skeletons will retrieve dropped weapons, open doors, avoid hazards and approach their targets by the easiest path.

Zombies retain no vestige of their former selves. They approach their targets by the most direct path, even if this means marching straight through an environmental hazard. They won’t pick up a dropped weapon (and if they’re not carrying one in the first place, they never will, unless their controller orders them to). They might break through a closed door, but they won’t ever think to unlatch it. And they’ll pursue their targets until either those targets are dead or their controller orders them to break off.

D&D zombies aren’t like TV zombies: they don’t eat their victims, and they don’t turn their victims into new zombies. But you don’t need to tell your players that! Their one unique feature, Undead Fortitude, makes them frighteningly relentless (one way to emphasize it is to have them fall prone when damage would otherwise reduce them to 0 hp, then immediately get back up). Beyond that, whatever the players believe about zombies—whether they’re right or wrong—will make the experience of fighting them that much more thrilling. Because, honestly, any thrill that comes from fighting zombies won’t come from their dazzling tactical skill. Zombie encounters are as likely to result in comedy as excitement, as when, for example, a rogue with Expertise in Acrobatics entices a zombie into pursuing her out a third-story window. As the DM, you absolutely should reward your players when they come up with ways to exploit zombies’ fundamental design flaw.

An interesting low-level undead creature that’s not used nearly as often as it deserves is the shadow. Great for horror campaigns, subterranean dungeons and other creepy settings, the shadow’s compulsion is to siphon the vitality from living beings, especially ones who are pure of heart. Shadows avoid light, particularly direct sunlight (it gives them disadvantage on everything); running into open sun is the only sure way to escape from a shadow. Its other features are Amorphous (it can pass through the crack under a door) and Shadow Stealth (Hide as a bonus action in dim light or darkness), and it has not only a high Stealth proficiency but resistance to all sorts of damage, including damage from normal weapons, and outright immunity to most debilitating conditions. Its sole weakness is radiant damage, so not only is your good cleric or paladin its juiciest victim, he or she is also the one who’s best equipped to defeat it. That’s fair.

Its Stealth proficiency and Shadow Stealth feature together define the shadow’s tactics. First, it lies in wait for a victim. When one appears, it uses its movement and its bonus action to approach with Stealth to within reach of the target, then Hide. If the Hide bonus action is successful, then it Attacks the same round, with advantage, using Strength Drain (action). If the Hide action is not successful, it keeps moving, to try again next round. The beauty of this tactic is that, even if a PC spots the shadow, the DM can say, “You saw a shadow move past you,” and the fact that the shadow is a creature may not even occur to the players at first. All they’ll know for sure is that something is there.

Once the shadow attacks successfully, it no longer has the ability to Hide until it moves out of view again (unless the PCs are foolish enough to be stumbling around in total darkness without darkvision), and this is where its compulsion comes into play: once it latches on to a PC, it will keep draining that PC’s strength, even though slipping away for another surprise attack might be more effective. What has the power to make a shadow think twice about what it’s doing? Probably nothing but radiant damage, being struck by a magical weapon, or a cleric or paladin’s Turn Undead feature. If one of these is used against it, it will Disengage (action), move out of view, Hide (bonus action) and wait for its victim to come within striking distance again.

Strength Drain can be nasty, not so much because of the average 9 hp of necrotic damage it does with each hit but because of the 1d4 it reduces its target’s Strength by each time it hits. The ability points are gone, potentially affecting the PC’s attack and damage rolls and ability to use certain weapons and armor, until the player completes a short or long rest—and if the PC’s Strength is reduced to 0, he or she dies on the spot. The PC doesn’t simply fall unconscious. The PC dies. Skeletons and zombies have long since lost any ability they may have had to frighten players, but an encounter with a shadow should terrify them. I encourage DMs not to overlook this monster.

Next: ghouls and ghasts.

26 thoughts on “Undead Tactics: Skeletons, Zombies and Shadows”

  1. These articles are awesome – thanks for taking the time to put them together. One of the things that’s so much better about tabletop vs PC RPGs is having a live (thinking!) person play the NPCs instead of a computer AI. Yet without thinking things through like this, monsters can often just be “sword meat” (to use a term from a Kane novel), which is no fun at all. Nobody is scared of the lowly goblin, or a stupid zombie – but if you play them right, you can still soak a bit of a scare out of either.

  2. Another element of the strength drain comes into play if you use the optional encumbrance rule. As the player gets weaker, they lose movement and the ability to escape (very effective on the loaded to the limit PCs, not to mention the ones in heavy armor). This was terrifying for my players.

  3. There is also a NPC racial templates table in the DMG that lets you make NPCs for other races besides standard human, and one of the “races” is zombie.

    Apply to an up-armored NPC like a knight to make something far more irritatingly durable than its CR indicates, courtesy of high AC and the Undead Fortitude trait. 😛

  4. I should point out that the Shadow benefits most from targeting low-armor low-strength targets. Even at level 20, the Wizard/Sorcerer will still only have 8-12 Strength, and a maximum of 18 AC with Mage Armor/Draconic Ancestry, and will probably only have 13 AC at most if they used point buy and don’t have one of the above defenses. 3 hits will off someone with low Strength and AC.

    1. I mean, on the one hand, you’re right that a level 20 Wizard will have very low Str and AC and will be susceptible to the shadow’s Strength Drain.

      But on the other hand, a level 20 Wizard has cantrips that can do at least 4d6 elemental/magic damage (shadow isn’t resistant to this), and likely has level 20 friends around that can one-shot a shadow by breathing on it (I am mostly exaggerating here, but a level 16 dragonborn breath weapon does do an average of 17.5 damage so…).

      1. Right, but a level 20 Wizard might be screwed if the shadow uses its Amorphous ability to flit up beneath the wizards cloak and just strength drain the wizard that way.

        Amorphous: The shadow can move through a space as narrow as 1 inch wide without squeezing.

        Wizards have to target something with those cantrips. They tend not to be used to targeting themselves.

        1. While a shadow can move through tiny openings, they can’t end their turn in another character’s space, so no, they can’t really do what you’re suggesting.

  5. Something that came up in a game last night: does the Shadow have to attack for its Strength Drain to be used? If a character passes through a Shadow, would that trigger the property or is it strictly an attack by the Shadow?

    1. It’s an attack, with a to-hit bonus, not something that just happens. For that matter, Shadows are amorphous, which means that they can contort and squeeze into almost any shape, but they don’t have the ability to enter another creature’s space (features that grant such an ability explicitly say so, like an Air Elemental’s Air Form feature), so a creature can’t “pass through” a Shadow to begin with.

  6. Reading this I found myself confused:

    “First, it lies in wait for a victim. When one appears, it uses its *movement* and its *bonus action* to approach with Stealth to within reach of the target, then Hide. If the Hide *bonus action* is successful, then it *Attacks* the same round, with advantage, using Strength Drain (action).

    Reading this I see Move, Bonus, Bonus, Action… Isn’t that one too many bonus actions?

      1. Gotcha. Ok so are you ruling this as the shadow can hide ‘behind the PC’ or hide in plain sight as long as it is low light or darkness in the area?

  7. Gotcha. Ok so are you ruling this as the shadow can hide ‘behind the PC’ or hide in plain sight as long as it is low light or darkness in the area?

  8. “Once the shadow attacks successfully, it no longer has the ability to Hide until it moves out of view again (unless the PCs are foolish enough to be stumbling around in total darkness without darkvision),”

    The Shadow Step ability allows the Shadow to hide in dim light (and/or darkness). And with darkvision, players can only see in darkness as if it were dim light.

    End result: I believe shadows can hide every turn unless they’re in bright light, and I expect they don’t attack in those situations, or don’t attack the characters that are lit up.

    In my games they sneak up on characters (stealth check), attack with advantage (if not detected), and then hide and use their movement to walk away (opportunity attack if the hide failed). Repeat each round.

    Most monsters can’t do this because there’s nothing to hide behind, but shadows are able to hide right in front of you by blending in with the dim light. It actually gets a bit complicated to track because often some players can see the shadows and others can’t, though they can communicate the location to each other (but it’s still disadvantage to attack).

    Shadows are very dangerous when played this way.

    1. Shadow stealth allows them to take the Hide action as a bonus action, and not a full action, when in darkness and dim light, but it does NOT allow them to escape the requirement of being heavily obscured from the creatures they hide from. Dim light provides no such obscurement, and neither does darkness to creatures with darkvision. Shadow stealth cannot be used as you are suggesting.

  9. I see how the ability could be interpreted that way. And a quick Google suggests that many people are in agreement with you. I was already to admit my error, though I’d keep playing it my way for flavour purposes.

    Then I stumbled across this sage advice from April 2020:


    Q: “If a shadow demon or shadow mastiff is in (objectively) dim light, and it’s within LoS of a creature with darkvision, can it still Hide/turn invisible?”

    A: “A shadow demon in D&D can use its Shadow Stealth trait while in dim light or darkness—taking the Hide action as a bonus action—regardless of others’ senses. That said, the trait doesn’t guarantee success at hiding. Another creatures’ perceptiveness might foil the attempt. ”

    As it often the case with Crawford responses, it’s not as clear as I’d like, and his rulings aren’t official, and sometimes they just seem outright incorrect like he’s forgotten something or misunderstood the question. But I think it leaves the door open to this interpretation.

    I suspect that RAW, your interpretation is correct. That may not have been the RAI though.

    1. When he says regardless of others’ senses, this is at base true. A shadow in dim light or darkness has the ability to take the Hide action as a bonus every round it stays in that particular lighting. Other creatures’ senses don’t preclude this. They DO have the ability to preclude SUCCESS at the attempt.
      An ability that allows a creature to hide while only lightly obscured would say so, as a wood elf’s Mask of the Wild does. Since Shadow Stealth does not, the shadow must be heavily obscured to have a chance at success. The target’s senses now come into play when resolving the attempt. A shadow attempting to hide in full darkness from a human and a gnome while within sightlines of both can vanish from the human’s awareness, becoming unseen and unheard with a successful Stealth check against the human’s passive Perception, but not the gnome. If the gnome’s got sand in his eyes and is suffering from the blinded condition, well now it has a shot. Or it could just move behind a pillar to block the gnome’s line of sight.

  10. So I’ve decided to include a shadow in my game, and I’ve included it in such a way that the flavour text regarding a resurrected creature killed by a shadow is relevant. Would you have the shadow’s compulsion to (re) kill the creature it spawned from override its preference to attack clerics and paladins, or would its combat tactics remain unchanged?


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